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This paper was written as part of the 2001 Alaska Ocean Sciences Bowl high school competition. The conclusions in this report are solely those of the student authors.

The History & Future of Cruise Ship Waste: Modern Perspectives For a Changing Industry

APPENDIX (figures and tables)

 

Figure 1: Approximate location of major donut holes around Southeast Alaska

Figure 1


Table 1: Estimates of what one passenger or crew member aboard a ship for a week will consume and produce.

Amount of food and drink consumed 8.1-31.8 kg
(40-70 lbs.)
Total consumption of food and drink in a week a cruise vessel carrying approximately 3400 passengers 59,874-99,790 kg
(132-220,000 lbs.)
Toilet water flushed per day Up to 18.9 liters
(5 gallons)
Shower and other gray water per day 189.3-246.1 liter
(50-65 gallons)
Amount of dry trash produced per day 91 liter
(2 lbs.)
Number of bottles and cans disposed of per day 2 bottles and 2 cans
-Information gathered from the Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative of July 2000
 

Figure 2: Flood (rising) surface current in the Gastineau Channel

Figure 2


Figure 3: Ebb (falling) surface current in the Gastineau Channel. Flood and Ebb (Current Diagrams taken from Oceanographic and Related Water Quality Studies in Southeastern Alaska, 1965.)

Figure 3


Table 2: Overview of Wastewater Discharges from Cruise Ships Operating In Southeast
Wastewater Production/24 hour Holding Tank Capacity Discharge Rate Quality of Effluent
Blackwater
(toilet water
& medical
facility water)
20,441.2-60,945.1 Liters
(5,400-16,100 gals)
151,416.5-499,674.4 Liters
(40,000-132,000 gals)
59,809.5-200,021.2 Liters
(15,800-52,840 gals/hr)
Fecal Coliform count
<200/100ml
TSS
<150 mg/1
BOD:TBD
Graywater
(showers, sinks, food liquid)
355,071.6-1,030,010.5 Liters (93,800-272,100 gals.) 598,095.1-1,499,023.1 Liters (158,000-396,000 gals) 59,809.5-200,021.2 Liters (15,800-52,840 gals) Not yet determined
Oily Bilge Water 4,921-20,062.7 Liters (1,300-5,300 gals) 99,177.8-200,021.2 Liters (26,200-52,840 gals) Oily water separator capable of treating up to 9,842.1 Liters (2,600 gals) of bilge water per hour <15 ppm oil
-Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative: Part I Final Report (Activities through June 1, 2000)
 


Figure 4: Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge and Solid Waste Handling Diagram. (Diagram from the Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative from July 2000.)

Figure 4


Figure 5: Owner/Operator Company Cruise Lines and where in Alaska was charged of illegal discharge incidents in ascending order of incident date (1993-1998)

• Royal Cruise Line (Norwegian Cruise Line) Endicott Arm, AK
• Princess Cruises, Inc. Taiya Inlet, AK
• Birka Lines A.B. Lynn Canal, AK
• Seawise Foundations, Inc. Gastineau Channel, AK
• Holland America Line Stephens Passage, AK
• Regency Cruises Gulf of Alaska
• Holland America Line Gravina Point, AK
• Holland America Line Alaska
• Birka Lines A.B. Gastineau Channel, AK
• Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines Ltd. Gastineau Channel, AK
• Princess Cruises Inc. Lynn Canal, AK
• Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Gastineau Channel, AK
• World Pioneer S.A. Panama Whittier Harbor, AK
• World Pioneer S.A. Panama Whittier Harbor, AK
• Holland America Line Tongass Narrows, AK
• Royal Caribbean Cruise Ltd. (9 ships) Inside Passage, AK
• Holland America Line Alaska
-Information gathered from the GAO report
 

Table 3: Proposed Plan for regulations on specific wastes and implementation dates
STAGE UNTREATED SEWAGE TREATED SEWAGE GRAY WATER
1 No discharge in Southeast Alaska's waters Greater than or equal to 6 knots Greater than or equal to 300 ft. (depth) Greater than or equal to 3 knots
Greater than or equal to 1 mile offshore
2 All sewage treated
3 15/100mL fecal coliform
4 <30 TSS mg/L 1 mile off coast No discharge in defined areas
5 3 miles off coast <15/100mL fecal coliform

HAZARDOUS WASTES OILY BILGE WATER SOLID WASTES IMPLEMENTATION DATE
-------------- Port check of record books No discharge in Inside Passage "Cradle to Grave" Policy 2002
-------------- <10 ppm of separated water Mandatory recycling program 2005
-------------- ---------------- >3 miles off coast 2010
Removal of drainage systems in high substance areas ---------------- Land disposal of ash 2015
"Cradle to Grave" Policy ---------------- Discharge 10 miles off coast (ocean) 2020

 


Team Gastineau paper

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