This paper was written as part of the 2001 Alaska Ocean Sciences Bowl high school competition. The conclusions in this report are solely those of the student authors.
An Analysis of Resurrection Bay and a 50 Year Plan to Improve our Marine Ecosystem
Written in part by each
of the following:
Seward High School team
Our fifty-year objective is to maintain Resurrection Bay's growing economical industries and preserve the natural environment. This plan is dedicated to include pollution, industries, both current and future, tourism, population increase, and local sewage systems.
For our area of study we have drawn an imaginary line across Resurrection Bay, from Lowell Point to Fourth of July Creek, extending north to the head of Resurrection Bay at Seward (see map #1). This particular area was chosen because it includes all areas with the most human and natural interaction. We decided to exclude the southern part of the bay because the bay itself is 30 kilometers long and human impacts are limited (Boisseau, Burrell, and Heggie, 1977).
With such a unique environment, Seward attracts people from all over the world, turning our small city into a huge tourist magnet. The human impact is so great that much of our economy is based on the large numbers of people that visit us each summer. Along with the tourists and residents of Seward, our local industries also impact our area. Our industries include fishing, the coal dock, sawmills, oyster farms, shellfish hatchery, cruise ships, the small boat harbor, and the fuel dock.
Our objective begins with the sewage and gray water systems. These start in the individual homes and businesses of Seward where the sewage flows from each user's pipe to a main pipeline buried under the roads. The sewage flows by gravitational pull through the main pipeline to the pump stations, which are shown on map #2. At each station the sewage is deposited into a wet well which is explained in drawing #1. When enough sewage has been collected at each pump station it is pumped through elevated pipelines and again flows by gravitational pull. At the last pump station, the process is repeated as before allowing it to flow by gravity under Lowell Point Road to the sewage facility that is included in our study area.
The pond at the sewage facility is four acres in surface area, approximately twenty-two feet deep, and is lined on the bottom with a non-permeable high-grade plastic membrane. It is divided into two cells, or areas, by a concrete wall and topped with a plastic barrier. In the pond, the bacterium needs air to survive and thus there is an air pumping system, which aerates the pond, in order to keep the bacterium alive. Throughout a forty-five to sixty day period the sewage circulates through both sides of the pond. It is then released directly into the bay through a pipe that extends approximately 600 feet out and under the surface. Periodically testing is done, by an independent laboratory, to make sure that the Biochemical Oxygen Demand levels and Total Suspended Solids levels are safe.
In past years, fishing has been a major industry in Resurrection Bay. For this reason there are three fish processing plants located in Seward at the head of the bay. On the west side of the bay is Resurrection Bay Seafood. It produces approximately one million pounds of fish waste a year. The out-fall pipe for waste from this plant extends approximately eighty to one hundred feet from the dock and is about sixty to eighty feet below the surface of the water (Brindle, D.). Seward Fisheries is located in the Seward Small Boat Harbor. The out-fall pipe for this plant runs along the Seward Coal Terminal dock located outside to the west of the Seward Small Boat Harbor. This pipe extends 300 feet beyond the Seward Coal Terminal (McDonald, S.). The Cook Inlet Processing plant is located on the east side of Resurrection Bay (Map #1). The out-fall waste pipe goes 1200 feet out and 110 feet deep (Mattie, J.).
The fish waste at these plants goes through a two step process done by two grinding pumps. The pumps are located at the beginning of the out-fall pipe and grinds the waste before it is sent out directly into the bay. The size of the particles that are emitted out of these pipes are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and can not exceed one half of an inch (EPA Permit # AK-G52-0000). Dumping occurs at all times except when there is a negative three-foot tide or lower. The EPA monitors each plant annually checking the pump systems to insure that there is correct sized grinding and no waste buildup. Yearly inspections include sending a trained diver to examine the pipe and make sure that there are no obstructions to it.
The Seward Coal Terminal has been shipping coal to South Korea since it opened in 1984. Coal is transported from Healy, Alaska by train, coming into Seward two to three times a week. Each train shipment contains up to 6,000 metric tons. Once in Seward, the coal is stockpiled at the terminal until a shipment is ready to be sent to Korea. The stockpiled coal sits on a bed of dredged material, which is leftover from previous dredging in the bay. Ships are chartered 10 times a year. When a ship is at the dock, a mechanism called a stacker-reclaimer is used to take coal from the stockpiles to fill the ship. The stacker-reclaimer uses a claw-like device, which scoops the coal into buckets. The buckets then deposit the coal onto conveyor belts and transports the coal to the ship's compartments (Knopik, S.).
The EPA sets specific guidelines for the Seward Coal Terminal to follow in regard to coal dust and fugitive emissions. There are no guidelines pertaining to water quality for the terminal. Every couple of years the company re-applies for permits to ensure that the terminal is following all of the guidelines (Knopik, S. and Reese, T.).
Seward Forest Products, now known as the "Old Seward Lumber Mill" stands on the east side of the bay approximately seven miles from town (map #1). The mill was in operation from 1989 to 1990, during which time it was owned by Chugachmuit. When the sawmill was in operation they debarked and shipped whole logs to Long View, Washington. Since the mill was only in operation for a short time, a limited amount of wood chips were produced (McCraken, J. and Goade, D.).
Our local Qutekcak Shellfish Hatchery has been in operation since 1994 (map#1). At present, the hatchery does research and raises five species of bivalves: Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), Littleneck Clams (Protothaca Staminea), Purplehinge Rock Scallop (Crassadoma Gigantea), Geoduck (Panopea Abrupta), and the Heart Cockel (Clinocardium Nuttallii). Currently, Pacific Oysters and Littleneck Clam spat are sold commercially, most of which are sold to shellfish farms all over Alaska. Water used in the facility must be kept extremely clean to prevent any infection in the spat. It is taken from a depth of 250 feet below the surface of Resurrection Bay. Water is put through three stages of filtering, the end result being water with particles no larger than one micron. The water is treated with a dose of Ultraviolet (UV) waves. The UV is important because it breaks down certain DNA bonds. When the water is returned to the bay it is treated with ozone, a very unstable reactant, which oxidizes inert and ionic molecules to produce O2 (Agosti, J.).
Shellfish farming is a new industry to Seward. Although outside of our study area, there are currently three people in Resurrection Bay raising shellfish. Since it takes several years for shellfish to become large enough to be marketable, the farmer must invest a lot of time, money, and effort into his/her farm before a profit is to be made (Linville, B.).
Each year the DEC (Department of Environmental Conservation) tests the water for PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) and two fecal bacteria, Coliform, and Vibro Parahaemolyticus, a bacteria that can be destroyed by heat. Since most shellfish are consumed raw, the Vibro Parahaemolyticus bacteria can be a threat even though it's only been detected once on the Kenai Peninsula. A positive test of either of these bacteria would indicate the presence of sewage in the area (Farrington, J.). This could be a way to monitor the efficiency of our sewage system.
Many cruise ships dock in our port every year. The numbers are expanding and the ship sizes are increasing. In the 2001 tourism season there will be 110 cruise ships, including one that will have a length of 965 feet. For this reason the cruise ship dock is being expanded to allow for these ships. Currently construction is under way to allow for two large sized ships to dock in our port at the same time. By dredging out the current docking area, the docking area will become deeper and closer to the bank. They are tearing down a steel ramp to make room, on the western side of the dock, for the second boat. The dredged material is put on a barge and taken out into the bay where it is dumped 2,000 feet away from the dock. New dolphins, cleat devices used to secure boats in the water, will be placed closer to the dock and the existing one will be replaced.
The small boat harbor is another possible source of pollution in our bay. Approximately 500 boats are moored during the summer months with fewer during the winter. Due to the fact that there are many boats there is an increased chance of oil and fuel leaks and spills. For this purpose measures are taken to keep the water clean. In the event of oil spills one of the two spill response teams, Shoreside Petroleum and a spill response team created as the result of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, will respond and contain the spill (Ransom, S.). Another measure taken is to collect waste fuels and oils in bins, located at the top of the ramps in the harbor. The wastes are collected and taken to a qualified oil burning facility (Boulden, D.).
The Shoreside Petroleum Spill Response team involves all 12 employees. Each team member has 24 hours of initial training and an additional annual 8-hour re-fresher course. Practice drills are conducted four times a year involving all concerned agencies such as the Coast Guard, DEC, and the EPA. Small spills from one to five gallons can be cleaned up right away using absorbing materials. Larger spills first must be contained and then absorbent pads and booms are used to collect the spilled fuel or oil (Boulden, D.).
Fish remains are another harbor aspect that should be taken into consideration. A cleaning station was set up to collect the remains of fish that are caught throughout the season and cleaned in the harbor. It is used to reduce the waste that goes directly into the water in the harbor. When filled the boxes, located underneath the cleaning station, are hooked up to a boat and are hauled approximately three miles away from town (Sweeny, J.). Seagulls, eagles, and sea lions are the predominant animals found feeding from the fish waste boxes. These animals develop a dependency for food on human garbage, which is not good for their health and self-sufficiency as they can acquire worms, and other diseases.
The Seward Airport has been in existence for years, serving as a mode of transportation and an important means for shipping supplies. Above ground fuel tanks contain aviation and jet fuel used by planes (McDonald, J.). Waste oil is collected and taken to the waste oil disposal at the dump (Rule, A.). The state run Airport Leasing Authority, DEC, and EPA are all involved in issuing permits regarding the airport's fuel containment. Our airport meets the following guidelines, which include a secondary containment for fuel in case of an emergency, double walled holding tanks, and proper fuel response materials (Aikey, B.).
The sight of glaciers, rivers, marine life, as well as fishing for halibut and salmon lure people from all over the world. Many choose to stop in Seward to take bay charters for fishing and sightseeing, while others arrive or depart on the large cruise ships. To reach good fishing areas or view marine animals and glaciers one must take a boat out to these different places. This makes the boating industry an important aspect of our area.
The many cruise ships, sport fishing businesses, and charter companies have an impact on our area. An important industry in Seward is the cruise ships. In the 2000-year alone there were 89 cruise ships sailing into our port from May 14th September 22nd, which is roughly 4 to 5 ships per week coming and docking in our port (Seward Cruise Ship Schedule 2000). These ships come into port, bringing with them approximately 1,300 tourists and 1,000 more crewmembers (Bencardino, L.).
Sport fishing is another important industry for our town. This year there were ninty-nine business licenses issued to charter boats for use in Resurrection Bay (Lerry, C.). Assuming they run daily throughout the summer, that adds to the already large number of operations in the summer months. In August a large number of people travel to Seward to compete in the Seward Silver Salmon Derby. An average of 6,000 to 6,500 tickets are sold throughout the 10 day period (Garrett, M.). During this time there are a lot of fishermen and boats in Resurrection Bay.
To help pinpoint the number of private fishing boats in our area we decided to find out how many legal parking spaces are available to park a boat trailer in. There are two parking lots consisting of 200 spaces each. Seventy-five percent of the parking spaces are double parking so as to fit the vehicle and trailer. This gives us a number of 150 possible boats in one given day (Lennon, J.).
One must also take into account the day cruise industry in Seward. There are several day cruise companies. The two companies with the most impact in our study area are Kenai Fjords Tours and Major Marine Tours. Kenai Fjords Tours has eleven boats, which hold anywhere from 22 to 149 passengers. They have six different cruises that go through Resurrection Bay and out to the Kenai Fjords National Park during the summer months. They range from three hours to nine and a half-hour tours (Kenai). Major Marine Tours has two boats that offer two different cruises. The Resurrection Bay tour is four and a half-hours, and covers 55 miles. The National Park tour is eight hours long, covering 125 miles. The four and a half-hour cruise runs two times daily from mid-June untill mid-August (Major).
There are many factors that must be taken into account that cannot be completely successfully controlled by humans. Floods, while having the capability to cause a great deal of material damage they also have potential to literally "stir things up" in the marine animal ecosystem. Floods in the Seward area are caused by a wide variety of factors including, rapid snowmelt, heavy rainfall, or rivers switching channels. It is natural that a certain amount of silt and sedimentary matter will flow into the bay through the process of erosion. During a flood however, this process of erosion is put in fast forward. The increased volume of water cuts at the sides of rivers and creeks, depositing a much larger amount than normal into the head of the bay. Silt and sediment settles on the bottom of the bay, smothering smaller bottom dwelling marine animals like crustaceans, benthic fish, and various other benthic animals. This results in a loss of large numbers of specific populations, stifling the growth and harvestable limits of those species (Duxbury, A).
Over the years Seward has been expanding and the population is slowly rising. New hotels have been built as well as individual houses, which is a good indication of more residents in our town. The statistics show that the number has gone from 3,357 people in 1990 to 3,744 in 1999. The yearly growth rate is currently 2.8%; this gives us a population estimate of between 10,000 to 15,000 people in 50 years. The town will need to expand to the north and east to accommodate the increased population. Since the town would be expanding, away from the current sewage pond at Lowell Point it would be reasonable to assume that a new one should be built.
Along with sewage from the people of Seward, a small amount of sewage is also dumped into the bay by recreational boats. The increase of population will cause a greater usage of small boats, therefore, increasing the amounts of human waste going directly into the bay. From the increase of boats there is also a more likely chance of oil and fuel spills. A new boom system has been considered for a possible solution. To help control these possible pollution problems, we have proposed some ideas that will be discussed later on in the plan.
With the current rise of fish processing we predict that the numbers will continue to increase. For this reason some regulatory steps should be taken to decrease the amount of fish byproducts going into the bay. Alternative ways should also be sought to recycle the waste into environmentally friendly materials.
Presently the Seward Airport is meeting all required guidelines set up by the government. So far they have not had any large accidents regarding fuel or oil spills. For this reason we have decided to exclude it from our future plan.
At this time we do not see a substantial increase in the amount of coal coming into Seward. For this reason we believe that the market industry of coal will stay at a stable rate. The system is now working well, however there are a few minor adjustments we would like to propose in our plan.
In the future there will likely be another sawmill operation since we have a large forest reserve including an area north of Seward infested with Spruce Bark Beetles. For this reason we are including this industry in our 50-year plan.
The shellfish hatchery will likely either stay at its current size or slightly increase. The shellfish farms won't expand at a fast rate due to costly start up of a farm. It takes three to four years for the shellfish to grow to a marketable size (Linville, B.). The current system is efficient; therefore, there are no foreseeable complications in the future.
The cruise ship industry has been increasing in numbers. The cruise ships are frequenting our port and are becoming larger in size. This trend will continue to expand and grow, which is apparent in the new dock that is currently being built. Measures should be taken to accommodate this growing industry by expansion of the docks and dock facilities to handle the human traffic.
With the increased number of cruise ships docking in our port comes people wanting to charter boats and go on day cruises. For this reason we believe that, within the next fifty years, both day cruises and charter boats will increase. Considering this, the docks in the Small Boat Harbor will need to be expanded to make room for more boats. In our plan is an outline of how we propose to deal with this.
Floods have the potential to have a large impact on our ecosystem as explained earlier. For this reason it is important to design a program that will help prevent much of the erosion from the banks of rivers and streams. In our plan is an outline of how we would help decrease the amount of the erosion.
Since the town would be expanding away from the current sewage pond at Lowell Point, it would be necessary to build another sewage pond and expand the current prison facility on the east side of the bay. From our population estimate we have determined it will take sixteen additional acres of sewage ponds to meet the increased use. We predict this needed acreage to cause a major political battle in our community and state. Therefore, at this time we are unable to determine what agency and what community development group would be acquiring or donating the land. We also are unable to judge what areas of our community would be vacated to acquire this sixteen acres.
Our plan would be to expand the state facility prison sewage system on the east side of the bay for at least half of the acreage needed. The current sewage facility could possibly expand a few more acres but private property would be needed to accomplish this. Research should be done on alternative possibilities for sewage treatment facilities in Seward. Alternative options could include the Epcot Center idea, or composting sewage using wood chips (Environmental Science). The Epcot Center uses human waste to create compost for growing plants and vegetables. Composting sewage creates soil which Seward has little of. Soil could be sold and used for a variety of purposes including small sustainable gardens and lawns. Geologically Seward sits on rock and this soil would be greatly welcomed.
To cut down on the sewage released by boats into the bay we propose to set up a sewage tank at the dock across the bay just before the sawmill (map #1). A pipe running out of the tank would flow into the prison's sewage facility where it would be processed. This tank system would cut down on the amount of raw sewage that gets dumped and help lower the pollution into the bay.
We realize that the ship docks are also expanding this year, and they are building more facilities east of the existing docks and harbor. Currently we already have an oil collection system in the harbor to collect oil and fuel. As the numbers of boats increase there will be a need for more advanced oil and fuel pollution clean up systems. These systems for both the harbor and the outside docks will cut down on the majority of the new pollution from boats.
Resurrection Bay is ice-free and provides easy access for a large fish processing industry. Our local processing plants produce approximately 4,000 pounds of fish waste per day. One way to deal with the large amounts of fish waste produced daily would be to set up a fish composting system similar to one located on the Kenai Peninsula.
Fishy Peat is an Anchor Point company, which produces fertilizer prepared from fish waste and other ingredients. Using resources that exist in our area we could create a new small-scale business with a product similar to that of Fishy Peat. After a telephone interview with Al Poindexter, owner of the Fishy Peat business, we received the components for the fertilizer that he makes: fish meal, kelp, and peat. After the old Seward Lumber Mill closed, a pile of 250,000 cubic yards of wood chips was left behind. Since the wood chips have been sitting on asphalt, the chips have not biodegraded. In place of the peat, we could use the leftover wood chips from the sawmill. The sawmill building could be used for the actual production of the fish fertilizer. Another component of the fertilizer would be the addition of fish meal and a fish meal plant could be created in another part of the existing building. This would make good use of the waste that is a by-product from the three fish processing plants in our area.
The coal dock, east of the harbor, puts out a significant amount of air pollution. Local neighbors clean their storm windows every year and find centimeters of coal dust in the window seals (Steward, J.). Our group has come up with a wet down system to control the coal dust and to recycle the water used. The coal would be kept in a confined compartment, when the temperature raises to a certain degree the sprinklers would automatically activate and wet down the coal dust. The water would filter though the coal and be recycled back into the sprinkler system. This system would control the coal dust pollution and keep production at a constant pace.
Previous to the 1964 Good Friday earthquake local Seward residents could walk down the beaches and collect Butter Clams and Little Neck Clams. Today, due to predation, and sediments moved by the earthquake, their populations are extremely small. An aspect of our plan would include developing a proposal of the Qutekcak Shellfish Hatchery. The Hatchery's plan hopes to bring back the natural populations of Little Neck Clams to a level harvestable by the public. As well as re-introducing a native species, it could provide a means to measure harmful pollution levels. To accomplish this permits would be needed.
Prospective sites for our project would need to have easy access and a healthy environment for the growing clams. Jon Agosti, has suggested a potential site for re-introducing a population of Littleneck Clams. The site suggested is where Salmon Creek flows out into Resurrection Bay (map #1). This area is currently supporting a small population of Littleneck clams. This makes it a viable area for clam seed. Part of the clam seed would be donated by the hatchery and the rest would be funded to help the hatchery cover their costs. A project such as this could be a great opportunity to involve local school-age kids as a way to teach applied sciences. People would be charged a fee to harvest their own clams. This money will be used to re-seed local beach areas.
Large ships that come in the area can leave behind numerous amounts of waste including oil, gas, etc. We propose to take water samples every five hours so we can test the water at least twice while the ship is still docked. We would accomplish this by setting up a computer system that would take in a sample of seawater at sea level to twenty feet down into the Bay in five feet increments. The results would be projected onto a computer that is located at the Harbormaster. Any ships found depositing waste over the requirement levels would be fined a set charge.
In the future we may need to expand the docks, making room for more boats. One way to do this is to expand the harbor east, toward the coal dock. By putting in more rows of docking area, this will allow for a larger number of boats to dock in our harbor.
When floods take place erosion occurs at a faster rate than normal. For this reason steps should be taken to decrease the rate of sediments going into the rivers and Resurrection Bay. One idea that we came up with is to plant willows on the banks of rivers. This would make the soil more solid and unlikely to erode as fast, which would cut down on the amount of sediment into the water. To do this we would ask the school systems to incorporate growing the willows into their curriculum. The willows raised would then be planted in designated areas by the students with supervision.
Due to the costly nature of the plan we have proposed several ways to fund the programs. One way to accomplish this would be to put a head tax on all the passengers riding on charter or day cruise boats. We would charge the tourists a dollar tax per person on their final bill for charter or sightseeing trips. The sale of soil from composting sewage would also contribute to various aspects of our proposal. Another source of income would come from our version of the Fishy Peat business. This will not accommodate for all the financial needs so we would also apply for state grants, for example the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill fund, and federal grants. At the moment the oil industries contribute a large amount of money to the state economy, but in the next 50 years that could change as the oil on the North Slope becomes less abundant. It would, however, contribute to the money necessary to institute our plan. A program of the Kenai Peninsula Borough, the Economic Development Department, offers grants to local communities for development. Our state senators and representative Stevens, Young, and Murkowski, who are heads of powerful committees in Congress, can influence the government to provide funds for improvement of our area. Although our legislators are getting older, they could provide funding to begin projects that would be continued by future legislators. Another possibility for funds could come from environmental organizations such as the Sierra Club and the Audubon Society. We believe they will endorse our plans because it is trying to keep our pristine marine environment alive and raise populations of natural species.
Many aspects must be taken into consideration when devising a plan that will effect a town and it's local marine ecosystem for the next half century. Our plan brings to attention some of the main issues that will become concerns in the future and ones that need to be addressed presently. This proposed plan would preserve our seacape for generations to come. Alexander Baranov's ancestors could come here in 50 years and find much of the same environment that Baranov found over 200 years ago.
Agosti, Jon. Qutekcak Shellfish Hatchery, P.O. Box 369, Seward AK, 99664, (907) 224-5181.
Aikey, Butch. FS Air, 6121 South Air Park Place, Anchorage AK 99502, 1-800-478-9595.
Bencardino, Louis. Alaska Railroad Corporation, Manager of Dock Services, P.O. Box 95, Seward AK 99664, (907) 265-2696, (cell:(907) 362-1079).
Boulden, Doug. Shoreside Petroleum Manager, Seward, Alaska 99664 (907) 224-8040.
Brindle, David. Manager of Resurrection Bay Seafoods, P.O. Box 1710, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 223-3366.
Casey, W.C. Seward Public Works/Water and Sewage Div., 410 Adam St., Seward, AK 99664, (907) 362-3007.
Farrington, Jerry. DEC, 35390-K-Beach Road, Suite 11, Soldotna, AK. 99669 Jerry_Farrington@envircon.state.ak.us.
Garrett, Marti. Chamber of Commerce, P.O. Box 749, 2001 Seward Highway, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-8051.
Goade, David. Executive Vice-President of Goldbelt Inc. 9097 Glacier Suite 200, Jueanu, AK 99801, (907) 790-4990.
Knopik, Shelly. Seward Coal Terminal, P.O. Box 1789, Seward AK 99664, (907) 224-3120.
Lerry, Cristy, Assistant City Clerk, P.O. Box 167, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-4050.
Lennon, John, P.O. Box 167, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 362-1999.
Linville, Bob, Shellfish farmer, Seward, Alaska 99664, (907) 224-3252.
Mattie, John, Cook Inlet Processing P.O. Box , Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-
McCracken, Jim. Owner of Seward Ship Dock, Lowell Pt., Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-3701.
McDonald, Dan. Marine Opperations, Kenai Fjords Tours P.O. Box 1889, Seward AK 99664, (907) 224-8068.
McDonald, Judy. Civil Air Patrol Squadron Leader, P.O. Box 730 Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-5261.
Mc Donald, Sean, Icicle Sea Food, Seward, Alaska (907) 224-3381
Poindexer, Al, Anchor Point, Alaska, (907) 235-1034.
Ransom, Scott, Harbor Master's Office, Seward, Alaska, 224-3642.
Reese, Tom. Seward Coal Terminal, P.O. Box 1789, Seward AK 99664, (907) 224-3120.
Rule, Alex. Federal Aviation Association, P.O. Box 1166, Seward AK 99664, (907) 224-3515.
Steward, Jim. Citizen of Seward Alaska, P.O. Box 1598, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-8285.
Sweeny, Judi. Secretary of Seward Harbor Master Office, P.O. Box 167, Seward, AK 99664, (907) 224-3138.
Duxbary, Alyn C., Duxbary, Alison B. An Introduction To the Worlds Oceans. 3rd ed. Wm.C.Brown Publishers, 1989.
"Seward Alaska: A History of the Gateway City, VoI: Prehistory to 1914." Barry, Mary J. © 1986.
"Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." 15th Edition, APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 1980.
"Southeast Alaska's Rocky Shores: Animals" O'Clair M. Rita, O'Clair E. Charles © 1998.
Environmental Protection Agency, permit No. AK-G52-0000. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. 1200 Sixth Avenue, WD-134, Seattle, WA. 98101, (206) 553-1214. June 21, 1995.
Kenai Fjords Tours; capacity of boats and duration of tours. www.alaskan.com/kenaifjords/cruises.htm.
Major Marine Tours; duration of tours. www.majormarine.com.