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This paper was written as part of the 2001 Alaska Ocean Sciences Bowl high school competition. The conclusions in this report are solely those of the student authors.

The History & Future of Cruise Ship Waste: Modern Perspectives For a Changing Industry

A Fifty Year Plan for The Gastineau Channel Ecosystems

photo

Written in part by each of the following:
Sarah Bixby
Jessica Page
Jolene Rielly
Adriana Rodriguez
Clay Good, coach

Team Gastineau
Juneau-Douglas High School
10016 Crazy Horse Dr.
Juneau, Alaska 99801
 
Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PRESENT PROBLEMS, AND CONCERNS

III. FLUSHING RATE OF THE GASTINEAU CHANNEL

IV. WASTE

V. ECONOMY

VI. EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM

VII. CONCLUSION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

WORKS CITED

SOURCES

APPENDIX (FIGURES AND TABLES)

 

Abstract

Southeast Alaska’s Gastineau Channel, located near Juneau, is a semi-enclosed fjord, an environment that requires protection from the waste generated by cruise ships transiting this waterway en route Juneau. For the past five decades, the tourism industry has greatly increased, in turn raising the concerns of the effects on the environment. The impacts of the cruise industry on the surrounding environment are influenced by the hydrology of Gastineau Channel, the adequacy of federal and state regulations, and the production and disposal of waste. Over the past decade, Alaska’s waters have been polluted by waste generated from cruise vessels. If new standards are not implemented, the environment will continue to degrade.

The focus of this report involves various types of waste discharges from cruise vessels and their effects on the ecosystem. The wastes from cruise ships are black water (raw sewage), gray water (sinks, showers, galleys), bilge water (oil and water mixture), and hazardous wastes (toxics). Federal and State regulations now prohibit the discharge of many of the above wastes until treated. With cruise ships getting larger and discharging more wastes, we believe the present treatment systems and regulations do not adequately protect Southeast waters.

At the outset of the tourism industry, the environmental impacts were minimal, due to less traffic, and fewer passengers. Today the cruise industry’s waste systems are being upgraded through the application of new technologies and greater attention is placed towards protecting the environment and having a good public image. While the cruise industry has attained higher standards than previous years, the waste disposal in areas such as Gastineau Channel has the potential for negative environmental impacts. The increased environmental attention of the cruise industry and improved waste treatment regulations are reducing environmental impacts from vessels.

New regulations, programs and funding systems are suggested to impose better protection of the marine environment in Gastineau Channel. Implementation of these suggestions minimize the impacts of the cruise industry on the Gastineau Channel ecosystem.

INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade, ships the size of small cities have been bringing thousands of people from around the world to Alaska. Packed with resources to be consumed by passengers, the cruise industry produces more waste than it can hold, bringing up concerns over the discharges from vessels and the impacts on the environment.

Southeast Alaska’s Gastineau Channel is a semi-enclosed fjord that, because of the oceanographic location, deserves more consideration when presented with the cruise industry and their waste practices. Presently, there is no formally written record as to how the Inside Passage is impacted by the waste discharges from cruise vessels. We can only assume that if the capacity to flush waste adequately is not present in the Inside Passage, the environment can potentially be harmed.

This report explores these concerns and a potential environmental impact of the growing foreign cruise ship industry, presents a responsible and reasonable resolution for these problems and concerns, and provides funding possibilities.

History of Regulations

Even before the United States bought Alaska, the fur trade, gold rush and many other prosperous industries sparked a growing interest that has continued to lure millions up to Alaska. Today, that interest is what keeps the cruise ship industry a vital part of the economy of Alaska. Only 8% of North Americans (Greenwald, 1998) have traveled on a cruise ship, therefore, an opportunity for a growth in popularity exists. Because of this possible increase, the number of ships and the amount of waste needing to be disposed of could also be expected to grow (Table 1).

Early, in the past century, ships discharged sewage, trash, galley and shower water overboard without consideration of the impact on the surrounding environment. It wasn’t until 1899 when the Refuse Act was passed, that "throwing, discharging or depositing any refuse matter of any kind into the waters of the United States" (www.boatsafe.com/nauticalknowhow/boating/4_2_f.htm) was prohibited. This
regulation was passed not to protect the environment but because of the concern that the waste being discharged would eventually fill in and close channels and waterways.

The most influential and important set of maritime environment regulations passed in the history of ocean transportation is the International Maritime Organizations out of treaties, which began in 1954 as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil and later developed into MARPOL. According to the web site www.boatsafe.com, MARPOL has been amended over the years to address issues involving pollution of the high seas from maritime operations. Specifically, the MARPOL treaties presently in force or under development regulate oil pollution, noxious liquid substances, hazardous packaging, sewage, garbage, and smoke emissions.

While some of these international pollution prevention laws have yet to be passed, the majority is presently in effect and enforced around the world. The issues involving vessels are being constantly addressed and amended, though some may never be resolved. In addition to MARPOL, there are a numerous federal and state regulations that apply to ships operating in U.S. waters. In many cases, U.S. pollution laws such as the Clean Water Act, Port and Tanker Safety Act and Oil Pollution Act of 1990 are more restrictive than international regulations. All of these environmental laws apply to cruise ships.

Past Violations

In the summer of 1999 the Department of Justice imposed over $25 million in penalties to Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines for illegal discharges of oil and chemicals discovered by Coast Guard over flights and vessel inspections. While most of the discharges were discovered in the waters off Florida, some of the illegal discharges occurred in Alaska waters (Figure 5). Alaskan citizens were outraged by these findings and Juneau Alaska’s Mayor, Dennis Egan, requested the President of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines come to Juneau and apologize.

Present Efforts

The concern over the adequacy of existing regulations of the cruise industry’s discharges on the air and water led the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to form the Alaska Cruise Ship Task Force composed of cruise industry representatives along with federal and state organizations. This Task Force set out to identify ways to reduce the potentially negative impacts of the cruise industry on Alaska's environment, which led to the modifications of cruise ship practices. An article by Michele Brown in the March 17, 2000 Anchorage Daily News, reported the cruise industry voluntarily committed to no waste discharges in "donut-holes" (Figure 1). "Donut-holes" refer to areas contained within enclosed waters and at least 3 miles (4.83 km) offshore, specifically those within the Alexander Archipelago. Existing laws allow donut holes to become areas where the discharge of untreated sewage and sinkable, non-plastic ground up garbage is legal. Because of the sensitivity in Alexander Archipelago these donutholes could potentially lead to dead zones as well as harmful affects on the ecosystem due to restricted water exchange and flushing rate.

To collect information on the discharges from vessels Alaska State legislators are exploring the potential regulation that would require marine water reports of all incidents "in which they know or suspect that a vessel has pumped out waste" (The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 20 April 2000). During the 2000 tourist season, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) aircraft and vessels routinely patrolled the waters transited by major cruise ships to ensure vessels were complying with environmental laws. Furthermore, the USCG conducted environmental inspections and "sampling of effluents each overboard discharge point on every major cruise ship" twice during the summer (Massey, 2 June 2000). These inspections took samples of treated sewage and gray water (water from galleys and showers). The Alaska Cruise Ship Task Force review of the samples showed that the marine sanitation devices used by cruise ships were not adequately processing sewage, as the fecal coliform and Total Suspended Solids criteria prescribed by 33 Code of Federal Regulations Part 159 were not being met.

On December 21, 2000 Congress passed an amendment (P.L. 106-554) to the Clean Water Act "that would fine cruise ships as much as $25,000 a day if they discharge untreated wastewater or hazardous chemicals anywhere within Alaska’s Inside Passage" as well as a series of other environmental measures (Anchorage Daily News, 29 July 2000). The bill, cosponsored by Alaska State Senator Frank Murkowski, placed regulations on gray water, untreated and treated sewage while requiring discharge sampling to ensure absolute compliance with regulations. Even before the passing of the amendment, the cruise industry met with Governor Tony Knowles in November and voluntarily agreed to comply with the higher standards in the proposed legislation. Furthermore, Senate Bill No. 18, yet to be passed, includes requirements for record keeping, reporting, information gathering, registration, penalties for non-compliance, and to whom this bill would affect. Beyond requirements and regulations, it is up to the cruise industry to decide whether or not to follow set rules and minimize impact on the environment. With the lack of comprehensive environmental regulations that continue to allow the discharge of untreated gray water along with illegal acts of discharging, the Southeast Alaskan environment remains at risk.

II. PRESENT: PROBLEMS, AND CONCERNS

Today, the question is whether the present regulations applied to large cruise ships adequately protect the environment. In the past, Alaskans, as well as others have learned from experience that existing regulations are sometimes not followed and are in many cases not adequate and consequently the environment suffers. The greatest concern at the moment is that if the cruise lines comply with all regulations on discharges, would the regulations be adequate to protect the environment from human waste, refuse and other discharges. In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of larger and more cruise ships, organizations on both the environmental and industrial sides have proposed potential amendments to the existing environmental laws.

Juneau community groups have voiced concern on the issue of whether the rapid growth of the cruise industry is impacting the environment. One example of public action on cruise ship growth is the $5 head tax imposed on cruise ship passengers. While each resident of Juneau potentially had different reasons for approving the $5 head tax, the main reason behind the head tax was to regulate the growth of the cruise industry. Cruise companies have been credited with helping to minimize negative affects on the environment with technology and a "stronger" commitment to regulations.

Besides the fact that a lot of Juneau’s economy benefits from tourism, another positive aspect of the cruise industry involves the passengers’ decision. When cruise ship passengers choose the package that takes them up to Alaska, they are making a choice that is best for them and Alaska. The cruise industry allows others to experience Alaska’s beauty without leaving a big footprint from their visit.

The negative aspect of the cruise industry is the reason why so many have voiced their concern for the environment. First, the cruise industry brings hundreds of thousands of people to Alaska to enjoy the scenery they cannot get at home, but the 898,610 persons (passengers and crewmembers) that came to Juneau in the 2000 tourist season (Juneau Convention & Visitors Bureau 2000 Cruise Ship Calendar) lead to crowds of people at ports of call and the increase in traffic. In addition, those approximately 900,000 visitors generate a large amount of waste that need disposal.

III. FLUSHING RATE OF THE GASTINEAU CHANNEL

Gastineau Channel is a restricted fjord leading to Juneau in the Alexander Archipelago Southeast region of Alaska. Juneau residents, through involvement in the fishing industry and personal recreation, utilize this waterway throughout the year. During the tourist season, cruise vessels operating in this waterway cause higher traffic rates, which in turn could potentially increase environmental impact. The magnitude of the impacts is reflected by the amount of waste discharged outside the Gastineau Channel and in "donut-holes". These areas are found throughout Southeast Alaska’s waters, where cruise vessels

are allowed to discharge untreated sewage and gray water, and ground up sinkable garbage three miles offshore which is designated as being open ocean waters. When gray water is discharged around Juneau, currents affect the flushing rate (Figures 2 and 3). Assuming that gray water is fresh, warmer than seawater, and combined with personal care products, it will be fairly light in density and stay closer to the surface making the potential affects.

In figure 3, the ebb (falling) surface current is illustrated by arrows that indicate the direction of the current. The majority of the arrows are flowing out of the Gastineau Channel which causes greater flushing of water. Unfortunately, during the flood current (rising), as shown by figure 2, the majority of arrows are directed inward where they are met with an adverse current due to the sediment choked estuary in the northern part of Gastineau Channel. Although cruise vessels are not currently discharging any type of waste in the Gastineau Channel, these current diagrams exhibit the possible restrictive flush rates that can be viewed elsewhere in the Inside Passage which are still subject to cruise ship discharges.

There are many areas in Southeast Alaska where discharge from cruise vessels have the potential to effect the surrounding ecosystem much like the Gastineau Channel’s. According to the Northwest Cruise Ship Association, waste water dilution has a very minimal effect on the surrounding waters. The flushing rates of Southeast Alaska are important to consider in assessing potential environmental impacts of discharges.

IV. WASTE

There are many kinds of wastes being discharged in the Inside Passage. Two of the main wastes this report focuses on are solid and liquid wastes. This paper will be discussing many aspects of these two categories including gray water, bilge water, black water, and hazardous wastes. These are just a few of the components that are a potential threat to Juneau’s waters. Liquid wastes that are dispensed by cruise vessels are broken down into sub-categories. Black water is raw sewage. Gray water is water from showers, sinks and galleys. Hazardous wastes are a combination of dry cleaning, photo lab, maintenance, and paint chemicals, and bilge water typically containing oil that leaks from the vessel's machinery.

Black Water

A typical cruise vessel produces a maximum of 210,000 gallons (794,936.5 liters) of black water sewage during a one-week voyage. Sewage generated from cruise ships generally has a higher concentration than domestic sewage, due to the fact that treatment plants on land have greater accessibility to a larger volume of water than treatment processes on cruise vessels. An adequate amount of water is necessary for an effective process of sanitizing waste because, if not treated properly, these wastes can be a potential threat to Gastineau Channel’s environment.

The Clean Water Act is the main regulation that currently protects Alaska's waters from pollutants that compromise the well being of the Gastineau Channel. Under this act, sewage is defined as a pollutant. Therefore, it has been established that cruise vessels must meet the standards for marine sanitation devices (MSDs) presented above. These devices are on-board instruments used to treat or store vessel sewage before dispensing it. Under the recently passed amendment (P.L. 106-554), no discharge of untreated sewage is allowed and treated sewage can be disposed of 1 mile offshore and moving at a speed of no less than 6 knots.

Gray Water

Gray water consists of wastewater from showers, sinks, laundry and galleys including contaminants such as dental and medical wastes, cooking oil and grease, pesticides, detergents, metals, and cleaners. These wastes contribute to the breakdown of marine life habitats. Gray water contains levels of fecal coliform which is a result of laundry wastes. A typical cruise vessel produces a maximum of 1,000,000 gallons (3,785,411.8 liter) of gray water on a one-week voyage. Recently a bill was passed which requires vessels to dispose of gray water 1 mile offshore and moving at a speed of no less than 6 knots.

Hazardous Wastes

The main hazardous wastes produced onboard cruise vessels include photo processing chemicals, dry cleaning sludge (which contains perchlorethylene, or PERC), paint waste, dirty solvents, batteries which contain lead and cadmium, and fluorescent lamp bulbs which contain mercury. The Resource Conservation and Recycling Act or RCRA and the Clean Water Act regulate the handling of these wastes which prohibits any such discharge.

PERC is listed as an extremely hazardous waste that can cause birth defects in humans, cancer, death, reproductive failure, and scarring in fish and other marine life. Over the past summer, further research has shown that the test results which stated that PERC was contained in hazardous waste being discharged in Southeast Alaska were false positives. Cruise ships reportedly collect waste such as PERC and bulbs containing mercury and discharge them to an approved waste handler in port.

Oily Bilge Water

Oily bilge water liquids are fuels, oils, wastewater from engines, on-board spills and other fluids from machinery that collect in the bilge (an area found at the bottom of a vessel’s hull). A typical cruise vessel produces a maximum of 25,000 gallons (9,4635.3 liters) (Bluewater Network Petition, 2000) of oily bilge water on a one-week voyage. Oily bilge water contains high levels of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and COD, which are dissolved solids, oil and other harmful chemicals. The law that regulates disposal of bilge water in Southeast Alaska states that each cruise line is required to maintain a record of all oil activity in an Oil Record Book, and also to have an appropriate amount of oily water separators to separate oil from water that is discharged over the side. The US Coast Guard periodically reviews Oil Record Books and inspects oily water separators.

Solid Waste

Another potential hazard to the Gastineau Channel’s ecosystem is solid wastes which consists of wood, food wastes, glass, plastics, paper, cans, and cardboard. A typical cruise vessel produces a maximum of eight tons (7.26 metric tons) of garbage on a one-week voyage. The process of disposal that is most often used by cruise lines is incineration aboard the vessels (Figure 4). The ash left over is then either offloaded in Vancover B.C. or discharged into the ocean because it is labled as sinkable. However, some cruise lines fail to incinerate their solid waste before dispensing it into Alaska's waters, which allows for the release of plastics which has the potential to harm marine animals through ingestion or entanglement.

Under the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, it is illegal for cruise vessels to dispose of solid waste within three miles (4.83 km) off shore, and for specific types of wastes, 3-25 miles (4.83-40.2 km) off shore. It is illegal for cruise vessels to dispose of solid plastics anywhere in the water. Just as cruise lines are to keep record books for disposing of oil, they are required to keep a record book for all disposal and incineration of solid waste in the Garbage Record Book.

V. ECONOMY

Juneau, being uniquely placed in beautiful Southeast Alaska with wildlife surrounding it, is a big tourist attraction. Tourism has grown over the past few decades and is now one of the largest industries in Juneau. Juneau's economy is partially dependent on the cruise industry with cruise ships bringing in approximately $80,593,630 through passenger, crewmember, and cruise line’s purchases. The amount of revenue brought in by cruise companies total to $8,641,354 through cruise related sale tax, passenger fee tax, port and other fees. However, the amount of revenue brought in through the cruise industry doesn’t compare to the amount the City of Juneau spends managing public facilities during the cruise ship season. The city of Juneau spent a total of $1,296,850 through marginal and direct costs (police, emergency medical/fire, libraries, visitors bureau, public works and other operations) (www.alaskacruises.org). Due to the significant economical reliance upon the cruise industry, options to improve the quality of the surrounding ecosystem could decrease cruise ship presence in Southeast waters leading to a negative decrease in our economy. Because of this, it is necessary to invest in economically correct and environmentally sound programs and regulations.

VI. EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM

These waste emissions have negative effects on the surrounding environment, and can cause harm to marine wildlife. Improper disposal of waste can be additionally harmful when salmon ingest such emissions traveling from Taku Inlet and or DIPAC located in the Gastineau Channel. The flush rates can potentially restrict the flow of waste discharged in Stephens Passage. Due to the significant economical reliance on the salmon industry in Southeast Alaska, specifically the Taku Inlet, any waste disposals could be capable of contaminating the salmon runs.

If oily bilge water is not handled properly it could poison fish and other marine life as well as expose humans to the same chemicals when consuming affected animals. This would affect Alaska's fishing industry, which is a major component of Alaska as well as the economy and way of life. When consumed, oil is fatal to birds, and marine mammals endure eye and skin lesions. It can also cause pneumonia, hemorrhaging, liver problems, and inflammation of membranes. When inhaled, petroleum hydrocarbons can disturb the nervous system. Even in small amounts, fish are killed by oil. It can also cause changes in heart rates, fin erosion, and in reproduction, the genes of fish are altered.

The Coast Guard has estimated that one million birds and 100,000 marine mammals die every year around the world from plastic debris floating in the water (Bluewater Network Petition, 2000), although not directly from cruise ships. The steroid hormone levels are reduced in seabirds when small plastic debris is ingested. Thus, their reproductive process is negatively affected. There are studies that show discharge of gray water "has the potential to cause adverse environmental effects because measured concentrations and estimated loading of nutrients and oxygen-demanding substances are significant" (Bluewater Network Petition, 2000). According to the International Maritime Organizations Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), gray water may contain contaminants that present greater threats than sewage discharges. Gray water and black water both contain fecal coliform which contains microorganisms that can harm the health and reproductive systems of species.

The main concern affiliated with sewage disposal is the release of disease-causing microorganisms and an overabundance of nutrients. These microorganisms, when consumed by marine life, can affect the health and reproduction of the species. Humans can also be exposed to disease when these species are consumed or handled in food preparation. Algae can be dangerous when it grows excessively when there is an overabundance of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. When algae over produces, it consumes oxygen in the water, causing a shortage to marine life thus leading to the depletion of many species. Another effect of over-enrichment of nutrients is the overgrowth of seafloor plant life, which can cause degradation to habitats of certain species that dwell on the seafloor. However, the majority of the nutrients contained in sewage disposal does not reach the seafloor because of water movement.

VII. CONCLUSION & MANAGEMENT PLAN

After reviewing all aspects of cruise ship waste discharge, we propose the following plan to mitigate the potential negative impacts of cruise vessels on Gastineau Channel's ecosystem. By the year 2015, approximately 3,500,000 passengers (crewmembers not included) will arrive in Juneau, given the cruise industry will continue to increase at a constant rate. However, representatives of the cruise industry have stated that Juneau cannot sustain such a great amount of people and therefore it is not plausible for this occurrence. Over the past 20 years, the cruise industry has undergone increase and will continue to increase until limiting factors present themselves. An example of this would be the fact that the cruise industry market will decrease if Alaska’s untouched beauty is overtaken by cruise vessel presence. If the ratio of passengers to the amount of waste produced onboard remains constant there will be further possible degradation of our ecosystem. One way to prevent this degradation is by implementing new regulations and programs.

We have devised an initiative for cruise lines that would serve as a marketing technique if they exceeding environmental standards. This initiative is called the Green Star Program which will be awarded to cruise lines who show "an interest in maintaining the natural health of water and air quality" (Homan, 1999) by exceeding current regulations concerning pollution prevention. Cruise lines that have achieved the Green Star are entitled to use the Green Star Logo in marketing thereby setting an appeal to customers who support environmental excellence. We have divided our proposed plan into 5 stages dealing with 5 types of waste discharged from cruise vessels each stage. A cruise line could achieve a maximum of 5 stars per stage if all 5 regulations implemented during that stage were met before the deadline date (refer to Table 3).

While the Green Star Program is in effect, periodic testing of Southeast Alaska’s waters will be maintained in order to provide information on cruise ship discharge. This will take place during the cruise ship season both in along cruise vessel routes and outside routes to create a baseline (control) to compare and evaluate if regulations are adequate. There will also be an on-board inspector at each port of call that will check all equipment that is required at each deadline date. In reference to figure 3, the arrows indicate a collaborative data interim period. These will take place between stages 2 and 3, and after stage 5. If test results from the first data collaboration show that regulations are adequate and the environment is benefiting, further stages will be postponed until needed. If results show that the ecosystem is still being harmed, stages 3, 4 and 5 will be implemented. After stage 5, another collaborative data interim period will take place to evaluate the adequacy of stages 3,4 and 5. If results still show an impact upon the ecosystem, all regulations will be implemented on another category of cruise vessels that carry less than 500 passengers.

The first deadline is January of 2002. By this time, all cruise vessels should complete the first stage of this plan. These requirements include the following:

  • No discharge of untreated sewage in Southeast Alaska’s waters
  • Discharge of treated sewage when traveling greater than or equal to 6 knots at 300+ feet
  • Discharge of graywater when traveling greater than or equal to 3 knots at least 1 mile offshore
  • Turn in all oily bilge water record books at first port
  • No discharge of solid wastes Alaska’s Inside Passage and the "Cradle to Grave" Policy is adopted for solid wastes

    (The Cradle to Grave Policy holds the cruise company responsible for all waste that is generated from the time of its creation to the time of its proper disposal)

The second deadline is January of 2005. By this time, all cruise vessels should complete the second stage of this plan. These requirements include the following:
  • All untreated sewage must be treated
  • Treated sewage must be discharged 1 mile off coast
  • No discharge of gray water in environmentally sensitive areas (which will be defined by the USCG)
  • Separated oily bilge water needs to be less than 10 ppm
  • Cycling programs need to be established for solid wastes

The third deadline is January of 2010. By this time, all cruise vessels should complete the third stage of this plan. These requirements include the following:
  • The count of treated sewage and gray water must be less than 15/100mL fecal coliform
  • Oily bilge water must be discharged greater than 3 miles off coast

The fourth deadline is January of 2015. By this time, all cruise vessels should complete the third stage of this plan. These requirements include the following:

  • Total suspended solids must be less than 30 mg/L
  • Gray water must be discharged at least 1 mile off coast
  • All drainage systems in high substance areas must be removed
  • All incinerated ash from solid wastes must be disposed of on land

The fifth deadline is January of 2020. By this time, all cruise vessels should complete the third stage of this plan. These requirements include the following:
  • All treated sewage and gray water must be discharged at least 3 miles off coast
  • The Cradle to Grave Policy is adopted for all hazardous wastes
  • Solid wastes must be discharged 10 miles off coast in open ocean
We conclude that through these regulations and programs, the environment will consistently benefit, and over the next 50 years, the water quality of the Gastineau Channel will increase. The environment will benefit from these plans and the cruise industry has the opportunity to regain a reputation of integrity in conserving the natural health of the surrounding ecosystems. The government cannot do this just by regulations; the needed component for preserving Southeast Alaska’s ecosystems will be the cruise lines' cooperation and support.

WORKS CITED

2000 Cruise Ship Calendar: Juneau. Juneau Convention & Visitors Bureau. 2000.

Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative Steering Committee. Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative: Report of the Work Groups. Alaska: Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, 10 May 2000.

Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative: An update on cruise ship wastewater discharges and solid waste handling. Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, July 2000.

Blue Water Network. Blue Water Network Petition. San Francisco, California. 17 March 2000.

Brown, Michele and Barrett, Thomas. "Facts Needed to Form Cruise Ship Regulations." Anchorage Daily News. 17 March 2000.

Cruise Ship Waste Disposal and Management. 29 August 2000. http://www.state.ak.us/local/akpages/ENV.CONSERV/press/cruise/cruise.htm

Auke Bay Laboratory. Flood and Ebb Current Diagrams taken from Oceanographic and Related Water Quality Studies in Southeastern Alaska, August,1965.

Environmental Protection Agency. Cruise Ship White Paper. United States. 22 August 2000.

Greenwald, John and Cole, Patrick E. and et al. "Cruise Lines Go Overboard." Time South Pacific. 11 May 1998.

"Marine Pilots on Litterbug Duty: Alaskan Cruise Ships as Well as Barges Would Be Their Primary Focus." The Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 20 April 2000.

Massey, LCDR Ray. United States Coast Guard. 17th Coast Guard District. Coast Guard Announces Operation Cruise Watch 2000. 2 June 2000.

Pollution Regulations. Boatsafe.com. 1996-2000. Nautical Know How Inc. 16 November 2000. http://www.boatsafe.com/nauticalknowhow/boating/4_2_f.htm

A Resolution for the Southeast Conference to Research a "Green Star" Program for Marine Vessels Operators in Southeast Alaska. Juneau, Alaska: Southeast Conference, September 1999.

United States. United States General Accounting Office. MARINE POLLUTION: Progress Made to Reduce Marine Pollution by Cruise Ships, but Important Issues Remain. Washington D.C.: GPO, February 2000.

USCG Rear Admiral Thomas J. Barrett, et al. Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative: Part I Final Report (Activities through June 1, 2000). Page 28. 1 June 2000.

Whitney, David. "Bill Limits Cruise Ship Dumping." Anchorage Daily News. 29 July 2000. Section B, page 1.

Sources

Kertulla, Beth. House of Representatives, State Capitol, Room 430, Juneau, AK 99801 Phone: (907) 465- 4766.

Page, Captain Edward. Chief of Marine Safety and Environmental Protection,17 Coast Guard District P.O. BOX 25517, Juneau, AK 99802, Direct: 907-463-2803.

Simpson, Paulette. Cruise Line Representative, Alaska Visitors Association, 2525 C Street, Suite 400, Anchorage, AK 99503, Corporate phone: (907) 561-5733

Wing, Bruce. Auke Bay Laboratory, 11305 Glacier Hwy., Juneau, AK 99801-8626, (907) 789-6043

Wright, George. Princess Cruises, Director, Environmental Compliance and Security, 10100 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90067-4189, Direct: 310-785-9855/ Corporate: 310-553-1770.

Appendix (figures and tables)

 


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