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This paper was written as part of the 2000 Alaska Ocean Sciences Bowl high school competition. The conclusions in this report are solely those of the student authors.

Resurrection Bay Salmon Management Plan and Other Related Issues

Written in part by each of the following:
Stephanie Christian
John Hughes
Erin McDonald
Bonnie Moore

Team "Resurrection"
Seward Middle/High School
Box 227
Seward, AK 99664

Introduction

The development of recreational and commercial fishing drastically shaped Seward and its people. In this report we will cover the life cycles of salmon in the Resurrection Bay area, including coho, sockeye, chinook, pink, and chum salmon. For background purposes, we will also cover the past and present management plans. Seward has a strong plan called the Resurrection Bay Management Plan (RBMP). Our goal is to refine that plan and create a better balance for fish and humans.

Salmon Life Cycles

Which came first, the salmon or the egg? In our story we start with the fish. Adult salmon find the water source of their birth and swim up stream to spawn. The female salmon lays from 100 to 14,000 eggs, depending on the type of salmon. While the female lays her eggs or just after, the male fertilizes the eggs with a cloud of sperm. In late winter or early spring the salmon eggs begin to hatch. When the salmon are small they are called fry. Some salmon fry swim immediately to salt water. Others stay behind in fresh water, feeding on bugs, algae, microorganisms and the rotted remains from last year's spawned salmon. Juvenile salmon at sea feed on plankton and microorganisms. They feed for about a year in lakes or Resurrection Bay. In the fall and winter they head out to the ocean to feed and mature. In the ocean salmon follow currents across the Pacific as far as Japan. When they are sexually mature, salmon come back from the ocean to spawn. Just before salmon head up the rivers, they feed heavily, storing food for the trip up stream. As mature adults, salmon eat herring and other assorted small fish. The male and female salmon swim up the river, spawn, and then die. The eggs hatch in 7 to 30 weeks depending on the temperature and will continue the cycle.

During their life cycle salmon face many dangers such as mammals, sharks and birds. The mammals that feed on salmon are humans, sea lions, seals, killer whales, and bears. Salmon sharks are numerous because of the high numbers of salmon in Resurrection Bay. Many sea birds such as Glaucous Winged Gulls and Blacklegged Kittiwakes eat salmon fry. Adult salmon are a source of food for eagles and many types of fish.

Chinook salmon, or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), is the largest salmon in the world. They can exceed 90 lbs. Chinook salmon fry stay in fresh water for one to four years. They feed in salt water for another two to three years. They return ready to spawn. Each female chinook salmon lays 1000 to 14,000 eggs in Box Canyon Creek, Lowell Creek, Seward Lagoon, Spring Creek or Thumb Cove.

Coho salmon, also known as silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutsh), are very adaptable to their environment. Average adult coho can weigh between six and twelve pounds. They stay in fresh water from one to three years, stay in the ocean for one to two years and then return to fresh water to spawn. They lay between 2400 to 4500 eggs per adult female in Bear Creek, Bear Lake, Box Canyon Creek, Grouse Lake, Lowell Creek, or Seward Lagoon. Chum salmon, otherwise known as dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), have the widest distribution of all the Pacific salmon. Chum salmon stay in fresh water for one to three years after hatching. They stay in salt water for one to two years where they feed. Chum return to the fresh water where they hatched to spawn. Females each lay anywhere from 2400 to 3100 eggs in Spring, Jap, Fourth of July, Tonsina, Salmon, or Clear Creeks. They also spawn in Resurrection River. When they are mature adults the chum salmon can weight anywhere between four and thirty pounds. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), are also known as humpbacks. This is because of the distinct hump formed on the back of males during spawning. Pink salmon live from one to three years in fresh water, then one to two years in saltwater. Females each lay 1500 to 2000 eggs in Thumb Cove, Lagoon Creek, Fourth of July Creek, Lowell Creek, Tonsina Creek, Resurrection River, Salmon Creek, or Bear Creek. Average pink salmon weigh anywhere from two to five pounds.

Sockeye salmon, also known as red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), live one to three years in fresh water and one to three years in salt water. Each adult female lays between 2400 to 5000 eggs in Seward Lagoon, Jap, Clear, Fourth of July, Bear, Salmon Creeks, or Resurrection River. Average adult sockeyes weigh from four to eight pounds. (Res. Page # 4)

History of Management Plan

(The following information was obtained from the Fishery Management Report NO. 99-2, Stratton, Barry, 1997)

In the early 1960's Resurrection Bay was managed primarily for the recreational harvest of coho salmon. The Seward Salmon Derby has taken place every August since 1956. The Seward Silver Salmon Derby has resulted in a growing demand for coho salmon and emphasized the need for a management program. In 1964, an enhancement plan was implemented to increase the numbers of coho salmon for sport fishing. The program included releasing hatchery-reared coho salmon into Bear Lake. The Division of Sport Fish operated a weir to control the fish going into and out of Bear Lake. The enhancement program also included the eradication of competitors such as the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus), Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and sockeye salmon using an organic pesticide called Rotenone. An increased amount of coho smolt production was the result of the program. Because of a large flood that allowed the threespine stickleback to return, Bear Lake and its creeks were again poisoned with Rotenone in 1971. Since then there has been no sign of the threespine stickleback. However, the Dolly Varden has been allowed to into Bear Lake since it is now known that they do not pose a serious threat to salmon. Since 1988 sockeye salmon have been stocked into Bear Lake for commercial and sport fishing purposes.

(Info about Rotenone and the eradication of Threespine Sticklback and Dolly Varden from Tom Prochazka and Robert Blankenship at Trail Lake Hatchery, resource # 7)

The start of commercial fishing for sockeye salmon occurred incidentally. The Board of Fisheries (BOF) created the Resurrection Bay Management Plan in 1966. Because it was known that Bear Lake was the only feasible area in Resurrection Bay to enhance sockeye salmon, the BOF decided that the early run of sockeyes would be maintained, but that any enhancement of sockeyes should not cause a decrease in coho salmon. It also decided that any enhancement of commercial fisheries for sockeye salmon must not interfere with recreational fishing. In turn, the management of sockeye salmon was added to the Resurrection Bay Management Plan.

The coho enhancement program demonstrated the need for a Bear Lake Management Plan. This was adopted in 1971, and was primarily for the management of coho salmon. It placed restrictions on the number of sockeye salmon passing through Bear Lake. Still, the survival of hatchery-reared fingerlings to smolt surpassed 50% at times.

In 1976 pink and chum salmon were also added to the management plan to insure that they did not conflict with the coho salmon fishery. As far as pink salmon go, their wild stocks support the fishery. Spawning in Resurrection Bay's streams, they go out to sea and then return from late-July to mid-September. The average harvest of pinks from 1977 to 1987 was 7,271 fish. From 1987 to 1996 the average was 4,449 fish, most of which were caught by shore and private fishers (Table 2).

Wild stocks also support the chum fishery. In 1985, however, chum fingerlings were stocked into Jap and Spring creeks. The only salmon fishery that Resurrection Bay does not support is the chinook salmon.

The State Wide Harvest Survey (SWHS), conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) in Resurrection Bay in 1986, began to estimate and record fishing activity, comparing fishing conducted by private boats, charter boats, and shore anglers. Table 1 shows that in 1986 the fishing effort of private boats resulted in a harvest of approximately 24,923 fish, 49% of the total. The charter boats had a harvest of approximately 13,180 fish, 26% of the total. Shore fishers harvested approximately 13,272 fish, 26% of the total.

In 1988, the Bear Lake Management Plan was revised, allowing the restrictions on sockeye salmon to be modified and letting higher numbers of sockeye salmon pass through the lake. This contributed to commercial fishing of sockeye salmon in Resurrection Bay. In 1989, the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association (CIAA) took control of the Bear Lake weir and its operations.

In 1990, 20,000 sockeye fry and 2,400,00 smolt were released into Bear Lake. The biggest return of sockeyes occurred in 1994. From 1987 to 1996 the average take of sockeyes was 991 fish (Table 2), mostly obtained by shore fishers. Stocking of chinook salmon in Resurrection Bay was to enhance a sport fishery and create more diversity in fishing opportunities. The first release of chinooks in 1984 was not efficient in producing large numbers of adult returns. Other attempts since 1985 to stock waters near Lowell Creek and the Seward Lagoon have annually produced return averages of 225,000 smolt. From 1987 to 1996, the average harvest of chinook salmon, mostly caught by shore anglers, is 2,300 fish (Table 2).

Current Management Plan

In 1995 the Central Gulf Management Area was split into the Prince William Sound and Resurrection Bay Management Areas (Fig. 1). The current sport fishing management area for Seward consists of all fresh and salt water between Gore Point and Cape Puget, including all of the water outside of Resurrection Bay from Gore Point to Cape Puget. Seward is the only town in this management area. (See Figure 1)

The main salmon fishery for the Resurrection Bay area is sport fishing. There is a sockeye commercial fishery in June but sport fishing is the top priority in Resurrection Bay. Programs for increasing sport fishing opportunities include stocking coho and chinook salmon smolt from state operated hatcheries at Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Force Base. The Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association (CIAA), also releases coho salmon. CIAA releases sockeye salmon into Resurrection Bay for commercial fishing as well. In 1998 360,000 sockeye salmon fry and 2,000,000 sockeye smolt were released for commercial fishing. For sport fishing in 1998, 409,000 coho fry were released into Bear Lake. Over 317,000 coho and chinook smolt were released in the Seward area. (See Graph 1)

Tourism and charter boats are very important to the overall economy of Seward. Access to sport fishing is available by road and rail, although many areas are fairly remote and a boat or plane is needed. Resurrection Bay is a popular jumping-off point for groundfishing charter boats. A small salmon shark fishery has also been developing in recent years. Resurrection Bay has the largest marine coho fishery in the Pacific Northwest. The highlight of this fishery, the Seward Silver Salmon Derby, is held in August, sponsored by the Seward Chamber of Commerce.

The majority of sport fishing is in salt water. All five species of salmon, coho, chinook, pink, chum and sockeye are fished for. Dolly Varden and steel head trout, both of which are fished for in salt and fresh water, are considered salmon species but are not in as great demand.

The Bear Lake Management Plan provides guidelines for the enhancement of coho salmon. The current coho salmon management plan is aimed at providing a source of salmon for sport anglers. Coho salmon development is sponsored by several organizations. The Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) pays for 180,000 salmon, and Seward Chamber of Commerce 150,000 salmon. Trail Lake Hatchery produces 400,000 fingerlings annually, which it deposits into Bear Lake. Of all the fish that are released into lakes and Resurrection Bay, there is approximately a 5 to 10% ocean survival rate. The current goal is to keep putting the same number of fish into Resurrection Bay for sport anglers. (See Graph 2)

The recreational fishing effort in Resurrection Bay stayed at a fairly stable average of 47,000 angler days from 1977 to 1989 (Table 3). The number of angler days has increased considerably in recent years. From 69,000 angler days in 1990, the number of days increased to over 109,000 in 1997. In 1997, sport-fishing effort represented 4% of the statewide angler effort and 6% of the South-central effort. (See Graph 3)

Chinook salmon is another popular salmon for sport fishing in the Seward area. Sport fishing for chinooks is supported mainly from hatchery fish. Currently there are two runs of chinook salmon, an early run between May and June and a late run in August. The Seward Lagoon has been stocked with early run chinook smolt and averages about 225,000 smolt yearly. Beginning in 1991, chinook salmon were stocked in the Seward Lagoon that were timed to return for a late run. Both of these stocking efforts are intended to increase chinook fishing opportunities for sport anglers. The chinook salmon fishery is open year round in Resurrection Bay with snagging legal in salt water. The limit is two chinook salmon per day.

The wild pink salmon support the local sport fishing of pink salmon. The sport-fishing season for pink salmon is open all year round. The legal possession and bag limit is six fish per day. Snagging is legal in salt water. Private boat owners catch the majority of salmon. Because pink salmon are not as desirable for sport fishing as coho or chinook, most pink salmon that are caught are released. Recently there has been a decline in the numbers of pink salmon caught. This could be because of a declining pink salmon run or an increase in the more popular coho fishery. There is no current objective for the pink salmon species in Resurrection Bay. However, the Resurrection Bay Plan does allow surplus pink salmon to be caught by commercial fishing boats.

In the Resurrection Bay area the majority of the sockeye salmon return to spawn in Bear Lake and its tributaries. Salmon returning to Grouse Lake are harvested by CIAA and sold for cost recovery. Private boat anglers catch the majority of sockeye. Future goals of sockeye salmon include a 1,000 salmon escapement from Bear Lake. CIAA's plan calls for a minimum of 5,000 and a maximum of 8,000 salmon to be put into Bear Lake. Sport fishing of sockeye salmon is open year round with a limit of six salmon per day. Snagging is legal for sockeye salmon in salt water. There is also a commercial sockeye salmon fishery in late May through June. This fishery targets the salmon returning to Bear Lake.

Wild salmon stocks support the chum salmon fishery. This fishery is open year round with the bag and possession limit being six salmon. The chum salmon return to Resurrection Bay from mid-July to the end of August with the height of this return being in mid-August. The sport fishery harvest of chum salmon is relatively low compared with other species such as coho salmon. In 1997 it was estimated that 644 fish were caught (Table 2). Shore and charter boat fishers catch the majority of chum salmon.

Dolly Varden are fished in salt water in May as the fish migrate out to sea and then again in late August through September as the fish return to freshwater for the winter. All Resurrection Bay water, fresh and salt, are open to year round fishing for Dolly Varden. This excludes the Seward Lagoon, which is closed to all sport fishing. In fresh water the Dolly Varden limit is two fish. In salt water it is six. Snagging of Dolly Varden is legal in salt water but illegal in fresh water. (Information gathered from Res. #'s 1,2 and 3)

Environmental and Human Effects on Salmon

Many variables have effects on salmon. The weather can have a major influence on the survival of next years' salmon. A lack of snow and a cold winter can cause eggs to freeze resulting in a reduced number of salmon. Another extreme is an abundance of snow, which could cause an excess amount of snowmelt in the spring. This in turn can cause the water level of the spawning streams to rise and could result in flooding, which can wash out the salmon eggs. A hot dry summer can be detrimental as well, causing the temperature of the streams to rise thus making the eggs infertile.

It isn't only the climate and seasonal changes in the weather that can have an effect on the salmons' lives and the successfulness of next year's salmon. Humans can cause major changes in salmon population and health. The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill harmed many of Alaska's marine and terrestrial animal species. Some have still not recovered from the effects. In the Resurrection Bay area many marine animals were affected, including pink salmon and herring. The effect is thought to be relatively minimal compared to that of other species in the area such as sea birds and sea otters. It takes years for oil to biodegrade. During that time harmful poisons are being released which can create alterations in the salmon eggs, juvenile salmon and adult salmon.

In addition to the Exxon Valdez Oil spill, general summer construction in and near streams can be harmful to salmon, causing eggs to be covered with sand and other debris, and die. Some construction is only allowed during the summer months. If the construction is to occur below the regular high water zone many government departments require a permit.

Human activity can combine with environmental factors to effect salmon and their habitat. In the Moose Pass area, which is the location of the Trail River Hatchery, many acres of trees were killed by spruce bark beetles. This past summer of 1999 there was a controlled burn that burned off much of this dead forest. Since the area burned off was a fairly small area, there isn't expected to be any impact on the hatchery or wild salmon stocks. When large-scale logging occurs it is important to leave a strip of trees on the side of streams to protect the stream from erosion. This area, called the riparian zone, helps keep the streams at a livable temperature for the salmon and provides habitat for the salmon's prey as well as the salmon. (From Res. # 2 and 3)

Changes

The Resurrection Bay Area Management Plan is very well organized and effective. The current plan provides a good opportunity for sport fishing, providing many people with good experiences and loads of fun. Without the abundance of fish in our area our economy wouldn't be nearly as strong as it is today. Our additions to the plan primarily concern public education and protection of the salmons' natural environment.

Our main concern is the safety and cleanliness of Seward's beaches and the health of the local salmon. We plan to address this problem in part through education of the public. Our plan would include distributing information pamphlets with licenses, Silver Salmon Derby tags, and other salmon tags. The type of information would include: how to release salmon so they have a better chance of survival, what type of fishing should be conducted in which areas, and other helpful tips. We would also like to set up displays with this information in tourist areas like the Chamber of Commerce, Kenai Fjords National Park Service Visitor's center, the Seward Small Boat Harbor, and the Alaska Sealife Center. Distributing such information would prepare tourists and anglers for Seward's regulations and help them protect our resources. Webs of tangled fishing line, rusted beer cans, dangerous snag hooks and old baby diapers litter our once beautiful and scenic beaches. Another facet of our improved management plan would be to help keep our beaches clean. This would be accomplished by organizing a beach cleaning program. About once a month, or as necessary, volunteers would get together and clean up littered beaches. We would also place donation cans at local stores and other organizations. The money would be used for new trash cans placed along the beach and in other tourist areas. This would cut down on the amount of trash accumulating on the beach. An additional project would be to create an "Adopt A Beach" program, where the adopter would be responsible for keeping their area of the beach clean. Keeping our environment clean and creating a better habitat for the neighboring animals encourages healthier salmon runs.

There are very few snagging regulations in our district. Several of the local people have suggested adopting the Homer Spit Lagoon regulation on salmon snagging which only allows fish to be snagged if they escape from the hook. (Res. # 1) We suggest a slightly modified version of the law, which includes prohibiting snagging during the late run of chinook salmon in close proximity to the spawning areas of our district. This would not restrict snagging in popular areas, but would protect the late run of chinook salmon on their way to their spawning grounds. We predict this would increase the size of the late run since it is usually smaller.

We believe our changes would have a positive impact on the community, the cleanliness of our beaches, and strengthen the size of the salmon runs of Resurrection Bay.


Resource Page

1. "Fishery Management Report No.99-2: Area Management Report for the Recreational Fisheries in Resurrection Bay, 1997" by Barry Stratton Division of Sport Fish, Anchorage

2. 10/14/1999 Interview with Barry Stratton, Division of Sport Fish about sport fishing in the Seward area and the Resurrection Bay Management Plan

3. 10/14/1999 Interview with Jim McCracken Chairman of Salmon Habitat Restoration of Chamber of Commerce, about sport fishing in the Seward area.

4. E-mail contact with Barry Stratton, Division of Sport Fish including questions about the Seward area sport fishing

5. Alaska Department of Fish and Game web page, http://www.state.ak.us/adfg/adfghome.htm

6. Bulletin 180 Pacific Fishes of Canada" J.L. Hart, St. Andrews, N.B. published by Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa 1973

7. Phone call to Tom Prochazka and Robert Blankenship at Trail Lake Hatchery concerning the eradication of Threespine Stickleback and Dolly Varden with Rotenone in Bear Lake

Tables 1-3 from Mills 1979-1994, Howe et al. 1995-1998.

Map 1 from "Fishery Management Report No. 99-2: Area Management Report for the Recreational Fisheries in Resurrection Bay, 1997" by Barry Stratton Division of Sport Fish, Anchorage

Map 2 from "South Central Alaskan Salmon Streams: An Atlas" by Skip Roy, copyright 1987 published in Anchorage, Alaska.

Figure 1 from "Fisheries Management Report No. 99-2: Area Management Report for the Recreational Fisheries in Resurrection Bay, 1997" by Barry Stratton, Division of Sport Fish, Anchorage

Graphs 1-3 made by team members on Windows Excel program and based on information from "Fisheries Management Report No. 99-2: Area Management Report for the Recreational Fisheries in Resurrection Bay, 1997", by Barry Stratton, Division of Sport Fish, Anchorage

Figures


Figure 1

map of Resurrection Bay

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Map 1

Map 1

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Graph 1

Graph 1

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Graph 2

Graph 2

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Graph 3

Graph 3

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Table 1: Components of Resurrection Bay saltwater sport fish effort, 1977-1997.

Year
Saltwater Effort
Charter Boat
Private Boat
Shore
Effort
Percent
Effort
Percent
Effort
Percent
1977
41,797
           
1978
53,355
           
1979
43,576
           
1980
49,623
           
1981
56,410
           
1982
49,167
           
1983
40,144
           
1984
44,669
           
1985
47,472
           
1986
51,379
13,180
26%
24,923
49%
13,282
26%
1987
42,143
12,432
29%
18,364
44%
11,356
27%
1988
50,251
10,587
21%
23,520
47%
16,144
32%
1989
47,386
10,628
22%
21,207
45%
15,551
33%
1990
69,485
17,810
26%
36,556
53%
15,119
22%
1991
71,332
20,872
29%
32,291
45%
18,169
25%
1992
80,814
21,342
26%
41,206
51%
18,266
23%
1993
85,559
22,251
26%
41,442
48%
21,866
26%
1994
85,742
26,664
31%
38,807
45%
20,271
24%
1995
94,265
29,805
32%
39,160
42%
25,300
27%
1996
108,155
31,704
29%
47,328
44%
29,123
27%
1997
109,462
30,370
28%
50,253
46%
28,839
26%
1986-1997 average
74,664
20,636
27%
34,588
46%
19,440
26%
Note: Reported effort does not include effort outside of Resurrection Bay between Gore Point and Cape Puget.
Source: Mills 1979-1994, Howe et al.1995-1998
 
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Table 2: Effort expended sport fishing and harvest by species in Resurrection Bay, 1977-1997.

Year
Saltwater effort
Chinook
Coho
Pink
Sockeye
Chum
Dolly Varden
Groundfish a
Other b
1977
41,797
515
14,528
1,595
6
63
1,720
14,457
26,034
1978
53,355
501
16,731
6,610
0
39
1,248
20,080
47,173
1979
43,576
156
14,315
2,100
0
100
973
24,690
15,562
1980
49,623
198
19,665
12,614
0
276
878
30,884
32,496
1981
56,410
162
14,721
7,776
0
194
5,335
22,853
20,736
1982
49,157
345
18,518
9,328
0
458
1,562
25,687
21,830
1983
40,144
199
11,277
4,909
0
923
5,811
20,215
15,420
1984
44,669
24
9,727
11,510
1,305
2,569
1,771
26,087
12,773
1985
47,472
187
11,227
5,262
1,335
634
191
22,554
4,382
1986
51,375
207
14,418
11,008
337
1,958
1,071
47,222
11,637
1987
42,143
633
24,220
3,368
815
1,974
815
18,853
1,694
1988
50,251
2,056
17,626
2,001
418
3,947
728
46,327
2,754
1989
47,386
976
19,184
4,856
624
1,696
993
41,186
17,806
1990
69,485
1,004
29,761
6,193
418
427
228
27,910
9,480
1991
71,332
1,547
30,964
4,714
983
757
524
38,352
2,299
1992
80,814
2,925
27,904
4,277
1,135
1,321
376
53,453
6,728
1993
85,559
5,121
47,572
4,172
1,865
680
774
50,537
1,644
1994
85,742
2,078
38,465
5,573
1,415
688
283
56,910
1,744
1995
94,265
3,868
39,741
4,732
1,294
396
609
38,953
2,356
1996
108,155
3,433
67,321
4,607
947
1,387
370
43,541
1,180
1997
109,462
5,761
89,851
1,654
2,081
644
275
51,121
2,946
77-86 average
47,759
249
14,513
7,271
298
721
2,056
25,473
20,804
87-96 average
73,513
2,364
34,276
4,449
991
1,327
570
41,599
4,769
Note: Reported effort and harvest does not include effort or harvest outside Resurrection Bay between Gore Point and Cape Puget.
a: Includes halibut and rock fish, and from 1991-1997 also includes lingcod.
b: Other includes smelt, herring, sablefish, cod, greenling, sculpin, shark, and from 1987-1990 also includes lingcod.
 
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Table 3: Number of angler-days expended in Resurrection Bay compared to Southcentral and Statewide, 1977-1997.

Year
Statewide effort
Southcentral effort
Resurrection Bay
Effort a
% of Statewide effort
% of S.Central
1977    
41,797
   
1978    
53,355
   
1979    
43,576
   
1980    
49,623
   
1981    
56,410
   
1982    
49,167
   
1983
1,732,528
1,212,961
40,144
2%
3%
1984
1,866,837
1,341,658
44,669
3%
3%
1985
1,943,069
1,406,419
47,472
3%
4%
1986
2,071,412
1,518,712
51,375
3%
4%
1987
2,152,886
1,556,050
42,143
2%
3%
1988
2,311,291
1,679,939
50,251
2%
3%
1989
2,264,079
1,583,547
47,386
2%
3%
1990
2,453,284
1,735,110
69,485
3%
4%
1991
2,456,328
1,782,055
71,332
3%
4%
1992
2,540,374
1,889,730
80,814
3%
4%
1993
2,559,408
1,867,233
85,559
4%
5%
1994
2,719,911
1,966,985
85,742
3%
4%
1995
2,787,670
1,985,539
94,265
3%
5%
1996
2,733,008
1,948,892
108,155
4%
6%
1997
2,654,454
1,803,564
109,462
4%
6%
a: Reported effort does not include effort outside of Resurrection Bay between Gore Point and Cape Puget.
Source: Mills 1979-1994, Howe et al. 1995-1998
 
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