research project

 
Practice Questions for the 2000 Alaska Region National Ocean Sciences Bowl

The following practice questions are submitted from Dimond High in Anchorage.

1. What dissolved gas in seawater is responsible for maintaining its pH?

w. nitrogen
x. oxygen
y. carbon dioxide
z. argon
correct answer

2. What is the average pH value of seawater?

w. 7.0
x. 5.6 to 6.4
y. 11.2 to 12.8
z. 7.5 to 8.4
correct answer

3. On his voyages of discovery, Captain James Cook required his crew to eat which of the following to help prevent scurvy?

w. salted limes and sauerkraut
x. oranges
y. banana peels
z. fish eyes
correct answer

4. Manganese nodules are...

w. volcanic in origin
x. pelagic biogenous sediments
y. pelagic hydrogenous sediments
z. lithogenous sediment
correct answer

5. Flat-topped, submerged seamounts are called...

w. mesas
x. abyssal hills
y. atolls
z. guyots
correct answer

6. Fresh water has its maximum density at...

w. 0 degrees C.
x. 4 degrees C.
y. 32 degrees C.
z. 100 degrees C.
correct answer

7. If water only absorbed light and did not scatter it, what color would the water appear from above?

w. blue
x. green
y. black
z. white
correct answer

8. Which physical property of water prevents extreme variation in the ocean's temperature?

w. density
x. salinity
y. viscosity
z. heat capacity
correct answer

9.Seawater in the vicinity of a major phytoplankton bloom is characterized by...

w. low CO2 and high nutrient content.
x. low O2 and high nutrient content.
y. high O2 and low nutrient content.
z. high CO2 and low nutrient content.
correct answer

10. The mechanism causing the crustal plates to move is thought to be produced by...

w. convection cells in the mantle
x. oceanic currents
y. rotation of the earth
z. gravity
correct answer


The following practice questions are submitted from White Mountain High School.

1. The seamounts of the Pacific Plate are characterized by their ___________.

w. flat top
x. eroded top
y. conical top
z. rising top
correct answer

2. Fireflies and glowworms use the same illumination techniques as some organisms of the mesopelagic zone. What do we call these types of organisms?

Short answer
correct answer

3. Stenothermal organisms are found mostly in the open ocean because __________.

w. large ranges of temperature do not occur there
x. they are not sensitive to the constant changing of salinity
y. the temperature varies for most of the water and they thrive
z. they evolved a tolerance for the wide range of salinity conditions
correct answer

4. The interruption of sand supply and the resulting narrowing of beaches is called _________.

w. beach replenishment
x. beach compartments
y. beach starvation
z. submerging shorelines
correct answer

5. What kinds of waves transmit energy through all states of matter.

w. longitudinal waves
x. transverse waves
y. orbital waves
z. internal waves
correct answer


OK gang, let's see how you do on this set of practice questions, submitted by Dr. Susan Sugai, UAF, Institute of Marine Science. Correct answer in red.

1. One of the most important roles of bacteria in marine food webs is:

a. Causing fish diseases
b. Recycling of nutrients
c. Being the main food source for jellyfish
d. Being the main food source for copepods and euphausiids
e. None of the above

2. Certain bacteria (cyanobacteria) are:

a. Carnivores
b. Herbivores
c. Omnivores
d. Primary producers
e. Filter feeders

3. Lithogenous sediments are found near continents because:

a. Their source is the weathering, or breakdown, of continental rocks.
b. Their source is a chemical that precipitates from seawater. This chemical has a higher concentration near continents.
c. Their source is plankton that are more abundant near shore.
d. They are produced in coastal upwelling regions.
e. They dissolve in the deepest parts of the ocean.

4. Lithogenous sediments are found in the deepest parts of the oceans because:

a. Winds carry them to the open ocean far from land as dust, originally from desert areas.
b. Their source is a chemical that precipitates from seawater. This chemical has a higher concentration far from shore.
c. Biogenous oozes dissolve, leaving behind only the lithogenous sediments.
d. They are produced during volcanic eruptions at mid-ocean ridges.
e. a. and c.

5. The composition of sea salts (the relative amounts of cations and anions) is nearly constant everywhere in the oceans because:

a. Salts are never added to or removed from seawater by any natural processes.
b. Sea salts are added to and removed from the ocean much more slowly than the mixing rate of the oceans' water.
c. Recycling via the nutrient cycle keeps them from changing.
d. River water has exactly the same salt composition as seawater, so it has no effect on ocean composition.
e. a. and c.

6. Most of the salt dissolved in seawater is:

a. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
b. Iron oxide (Fe2O3)
c. Sodium chloride (NaCl)
d. Silica (SiO2)
e. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)

7. The epicenters of many large earthquakes have been located near the Aleutian Islands because:

a. The Earth's crust is unusually thin there.
b. A mid-ocean ridge, where new oceanic crust is being generated, is located there.
c. A subduction zone, resulting from the collision of two tectonic plates, is located there.
d. The weight of the islands makes the Earth's crust unstable there.
e. None of the above.

8. The following is usually found near subduction zones:

a. A mid-ocean ridge
b. A hydrothermal vent
c. A seismically quiet zone with very few earthquakes
d. A deep-sea trench
e. A flat abyssal plain

9. Upwelling regions are more productive, in terms of both primary production and fisheries yield, than the central parts of the ocean basins because:

a. The ocean water is clearer in upwelling regions, so the availability of light for phytoplankton growth is greater.
b. Upwelling supplies nutrients, which results in high phytoplankton growth rates.
c. The fish are often at a low trophic level, e.g., herbivore or first-level carnivore, in upwelling regions. Open ocean fishes usually feed at high trophic levels.
d. All of the above.
e. b. and c.

10. The deep and bottom waters of the ocean are formed:

a. Near the equator
b. On the sea floor at hydrothermal vent systems
c. In the northern North Atlantic and in the Antarctic
d. In the north Pacific
e. Near the North Pole under the arctic ice cap

11. Deep and bottom waters form at the location(s) selected in Question 7 because:

a. Very high rates of evaporation at the equator make the seawater very salty and very dense.
b. The high iron content of hydrothermal vent fluids makes them particularly dense.
c. Cold water temperatures at high latitudes result in the seawater having a high density.
d. North Pacific bottom waters are the oldest in the oceans.
e. Melting of sea ice makes the water fresher and thus less dense.

12. What is the generating force and the restoring force of sea swell?

a. The generating force is wind and the restoring force is surface tension.
b. The generating force is wind and the restoring force is gravity.
c. The generating force is a sudden movement of the sea floor, and the restoring force is gravity.
d. The generating force is low atmospheric pressure, and the restoring force is gravity.
e. The generating force is the gravity of the Moon, and the restoring force is the gravity of the Earth.

13. What is the generating force and the restoring force of tsunami?

a. The generating force is wind and the restoring force is surface tension.
b. The generating force is wind and the restoring force is gravity.
c. The generating force is a sudden movement of the sea floor, and the restoring force is gravity.
d. The generating force is low atmospheric pressure, and the restoring force is gravity.
e. The generating force is the gravity of the Moon, and the restoring force is the gravity of the Earth.

14. A sandy beach is an example of a coastline that was mainly shaped by:

a. Erosion by a glacier or glaciers
b. Erosion by rivers
c. Movements of the Earth's crust due to plate tectonics
d. Erosion and deposition of sediment by waves
e. The rise of sea level following the last ice age

15. A fjord is an example of a coastline that was mainly shaped by:

a. Erosion by a glacier or glaciers
b. Erosion by rivers
c. Movements of the earth's crust due to plate tectonics
d. Erosion and deposition of sediment by waves
e. The rise of sea level following the last ice age

16. Coral reefs are formed by:

a. Movements of the Earth's crust due to plate tectonics
b. Tiny plants related to diatoms that deposit the mineral silica
c. Tiny animals related to sea anemones that deposit the mineral calcium carbonate
d. Tiny animals related to amphipods that deposit hard skeletons made of chitin
e. Erosion by rivers

17. Why are estuaries sometimes described as "traps" for pollutants?

a. The slow flushing rate of some estuaries causes pollutant concentrations to build up to high levels.
b. The typical estuarine circulation pattern (outflow at the surface and inflow near the bottom) tends to trap polluted sediments within an estuary.
c. Once pollutants get into an estuary, there is no way for them to get out.
d. The low-density surface water layer in estuaries keeps pollutants trapped near the surface.
e. a. and b.

18. Life has, over geologic time, changed the composition of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Some examples of how this has occurred are:

a. Photosynthesis by bacteria, and later in the Earth's history by plants, produced free oxygen.
b. Photosynthesis by bacteria, and later in the Earth's history by plants, removed carbon dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere.
c. Silica and calcium carbonate sediments (biogenic sediments) produced by living organisms have removed vast quantities of these substances from the ocean.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.

19. Radiometric dating is:

a. Only useful if the material to be dated contains Carbon-14.
b. Only useful for dating items that are between 5,000 and 50,000 years old.
c. The most commonly used method of measuring the ages of ancient rocks, sediments, and organisms.
d. A method that is rarely used for measuring the ages of ancient rocks, sediments, and organisms.
e. a., b., and c.

20. Radiometric dating is possible because:

a. The rate of radioactive decay of a particular kind and amount of a radioisotope is constant under any conditions.
b. The rate of radioactive decay of all radioisotopes varies the same amount with temperature.
c. The rate of radioactive decay of all radioisotopes varies the same amount with salinity.
d. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons added substantial amounts of Carbon-14 to the Earth's atmosphere, mainly in the early 1960s.
e. Radioactive elements are constantly being produced due to the action of sunlight on surface seawater.

21. Likely consequences of the doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration in the Earth's atmosphere over the next century are:

a. An increase in the average temperature of the oceans and the atmosphere.
b. A rise in sea level.
c. Changes in the geographic patterns of rainfall.
d. Melting of parts of the glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica.
e. All of the above.

22. Many scientists are seriously concerned about the predicted doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration in the Earth's atmosphere because:

a. Global warming of about 2 degrees C, on average, and sea level rise of more than 1 m are almost certain to occur.
b. Significant global warming is likely, but the amount and consequences of this global warming are difficult to predict.
c. Scientists are almost certain that large areas of the American Midwest will become a desert, greatly decreasing U.S. crop production.
d. Scientists are almost certain that sea level rise will render most present coastal cities uninhabitable.
e. a. and d.

23. Why does the Coriolis Effect influence the motion of winds and ocean currents?

a. The Earth rotates on its axis.
b. The oceans and atmosphere are not firmly connected to the solid Earth surface.
c. Observations of currents and winds are usually conducted relative to a fixed location on the Earth's surface that rotates with the Earth.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.

24. The Coriolis Effect:

a. Affects both stationary and moving objects.
b. Affects all moving objects, including cars and trains.
c. Is only important very near the equator, not anywhere else on the Earth.
d. Is due to friction between the sea surface and the atmosphere.
e. None of the above.

25. There was a very productive fishery for anchovies in the upwelling region near Peru because:

a. There is very little phytoplankton production there due to a lack of nutrients.
b. Phytoplankton production is high there because there is no grazing by copepods.
c. Phytoplankton production is high there because wind-driven upwelling brings nutrients from deeper water to the surface.
d. Phytoplankton production is high because there is almost no wind and little mixing of the water.
e. Phytoplankton production is high because of El Niño.


Correct answers for practice questions submitted from Dimond High

1. y. carbon dioxide

2. z. 7.5 to 8.4

3. w. salted limes and sauerkraut

4. y. pelagic hydrogenous sediments

5. z. guyots

6. x. 4 degrees C.

7. y. black

8. z. heat capacity.

9. y. high O2 and low nutrient content.

10. w. convection cells in the mantle.


Correct answers for practice questions submitted from White Mountain

1. y. conical top

2. bioluminescent organisms

3. w. large ranges of temperature do not occur there

4. y. beach starvation

5. w. longitudinal waves


2000 NOSB research project

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